Customer Satisfaction and Word of Mouth

November 20, 2006 at 3:58 pm 5 comments

Do consumers complain or praise more?

Telling other people about your experiences with a company of product is something many people do. This may be evangelizing their newly purchased laptop, or gripe about the slow service at a restaurant. Word of mouth is defined as informally communicating with a third party about goods and services, rather directly telling the company.

There are 3 theories about consumers engaging in word of mouth.

  1. Highly satisfied consumers engage in more word of mouth, because
    • they want to help others,
    • appear well informed or smart,
    • engage in ego defense,
    • reduce cognitive dissonance,
    • present themselves in a positive light;
    • they may have a general bias towards positive things,
    • or want to avoid saying negative things.
  2. Dissatisfied consumers engage in more word of mouth, because
    • they want to vent hostility,
    • reduce anxiety,
    • warn others,
    • or seek vengeance.
  3. Consumers engage in word of mouth more if they are extremely satisfied or dissatisfied, because
    • they will have a greater impact, hence more utility when they engage in word of mouth in a more extreme situation.

Word of mouth activity is also predicted to increase at a greater rate for dissatisfied consumers than satisfied consumers, since negative information about products is less common and has a greater effect.

A study indicates that theory 3 is more likely than the other two, since the resulting data is a U-shaped model, where highly satisfied and dissatisfied consumers engage in greater word of mouth. The hypothesis that negative word of mouth increases at a greater rate is also supported by the data.


The study replicated similar findings in both the United States and Sweden, indicating that word of mouth practices are likely universal.

Anderson, E. W. (1998). Customer Satisfaction and Word of Mouth. Journal of Service Research, 1(1), 5-17. [PDF]

Entry filed under: Consumer Research, word of mouth.

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5 Comments Add your own

  • 1. SarahC  |  December 6, 2006 at 4:01 pm

    I always tell my friends when I get screwed over with a product or service. Even just a little. But I don’t tell people about great products unless they’re really really great. Like my calphalon hard anondized cookware (no I’m not a shill).

    Thanks for writing, great post!

  • 2. Közös képviselő  |  September 9, 2007 at 3:23 pm

    Sweden country is great.

    Great post

  • 3. arilyn l. encarnacion  |  January 21, 2010 at 3:09 am

    good evening, i am asking for your permission to use your article in our research. i am a student from gabriel taborin college f davao.
    i am hoing for your response.
    thank you!

  • 4. Arnob Endry  |  July 28, 2017 at 11:35 pm

    Online gaming falls into that category. I believe in doing everything in moderation, but I can see how online gaming and such activities can be addictive and in cases a way to take time from venturing out to fitness centers, parks, and other social gatherings.
    As long as people are not harming others,

  • 5. smart fashion buying house  |  July 28, 2017 at 11:36 pm

    I personally think that the games are not the issue here. The games are just a tool for weaker individuals to use a form of escape. I play games but I dont live by them. I only play outranked games and I play for recreation but I limit my use as its easy to get too involved. The problem is games get better and they are intervened to make you feel like not much time has passed and this sucks you in. I know a person who now has realized he used games as an escape, but I think it goes deeper than that still and becomes more of an addiction with mmorpg’s and ranked online games because people love compitition. But one quote I heard from my friend is, life is better when I have my headset on I get respect people like my and my life is better, plus I’m not a n00b anymore and it makes it more fun. The new language has to be looked at and I also feel that people that play games so religiously should be helped and not shunned.


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